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Influence of wear of ball screw nut pair and its supporting system on CNC machine tool

January 30,2024

The ball screw nut pair is a very important part in the drive system of CNC machine tool, and its wear clearance may directly affect the drive precision and stiffness of the machine tool.

This article will explore the specific impact of such wear on the performance of CNC machines and possible solutions.

1. Causes of wear gap:

Long-term high frequency movement: CNC machine tools usually need to carry out high frequency movement in the work, resulting in the ball screw nut pair inevitably experience a long time of friction and wear.

Insufficient lubrication: Improper lubrication may increase the friction of the ball screw nut pair and accelerate the formation of wear.

- Excessive load: The ball screw nut pair subjected to long-term overload is prone to wear, especially in the case of high-speed movement and frequent change of direction.

2. The impact of wear on CNC machine tools:

Transmission accuracy decline: The formation of wear gap leads to an increase in the relative displacement of the nut pair, which causes transmission errors and decreases the positioning accuracy of the CNC machine tool.

Stiffness reduction: Wear will weaken the stiffness of the nut pair and affect the stability of the machine under high loads such as cutting, which may lead to an increase in the roughness of the machined surface.

Noise and vibration: Worn ball screw nut pairs can cause noise and vibration, affecting the operator's working environment and the life of the machine.

3. Solution:

Regular maintenance: Implement regular lubrication and cleaning maintenance to slow the development of wear. Reasonable selection of lubricant to ensure its performance under high frequency movement.

Reasonable load: Avoid excessive load of the machine tool, configure the load reasonably according to the equipment specifications and requirements, and reduce the work load of the ball screw nut pair.

High quality parts: The selection of reliable quality ball screws and nuts to improve its wear resistance. Use advanced materials and processing technology to extend service life.

Technical improvement: The use of advanced technical means, such as intelligent perception and monitoring system, real-time monitoring of the working status of the ball screw nut pair, timely discovery and solution of problems.


The long-term operation of the ball screw nut pair and its supporting system may cause wear clearance, which affects the transmission accuracy and stiffness of CNC machine tools. Through reasonable maintenance, load management and selection of high-quality components, as well as the use of advanced technical means, can effectively slow down the development of wear, improve the performance and service life of CNC machine tools. This is of great significance for ensuring the continuous and efficient operation of the machine tool and improving the processing quality.